The Smart Grid and Cybersecurity – Regulatory Policy and Issues

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Electricity is vital to the commerce and daily functioning of United States. The modernization of the grid to accommodate today’s uses is leading to the incorporation of information processing capabilities for power system controls and operations monitoring. The “Smart Grid” is the name given to the evolving electric power network as new information technology systems and capabilities are incorporated. While these new components may add to the ability to control power flows and enhance the efficiency of grid operations, they also potentially increase the susceptibility of the grid to cyber (i.e., computer-related) attack since they are built around microprocessor devices whose basic functions are controlled by software programming. The potential for a major disruption or widespread damage to the nation’s power system from a large scale cyberattack has increased focus on the cybersecurity of the Smart Grid.

Federal efforts to enhance the cybersecurity of the electrical grid were emphasized with the recognition of cybersecurity as a critical issue for electric utilities in developing the Smart Grid. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) received primary responsibility for the reliability of the bulk power system from the Energy Policy Act of 2005. FERC subsequently designated the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) as the “Electric Reliability Organization” (ERO) with the responsibility of establishing and enforcing reliability standards. Compliance with reliability standards for electric utilities thus changed from a voluntary, peer-driven undertaking to a mandatory function. The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) later added requirements for “a reliable and secure electricity infrastructure” with regard to Smart Grid development. NERC is also responsible for standards for critical infrastructure protection (CIP) which focus on planning and procedures for the physical security of the grid. Self-determination is a key part of the CIP reliability process. Utilities are allowed to self-identify what they see as “critical assets” under NERC regulations. Only “critical cyber assets” (i.e., as essential to the reliable operation of critical assets) are subject to CIP standards. FERC has directed NERC to revise the standards so that some oversight of the identification process for critical cyber assets was provided, but any revision is again subject to stakeholder approval. While reliability standards are mandatory, the ERO process for developing regulations is somewhat unusual in that the regulations are essentially being established by the entities who are being regulated. This may potentially be a conflict of interest, especially when cost of compliance is a concern, and acceptable standards may conceivably result from the option with the lowest costs. Since utility systems are interconnected in many ways, the system with the least protected network potentially provides the weakest point of access.
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From Machine-to-Machine to the Internet of Things: Introduction to a New Age of Intelligence

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This book outlines the background and overall vision for the Internet of Things (IoT) and Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communications and services, including major standards. Key technologies are described, and include everything from physical instrumentation of devices to the cloud infrastructures used to collect data. Also included is how to derive information and knowledge, and how to integrate it into enterprise processes, as well as system architectures and regulatory requirements. Real-world service use case studies provide the hands-on knowledge needed to successfully develop and implement M2M and IoT technologies sustainably and profitably. Finally, the future vision for M2M technologies is described, including prospective changes in relevant standards. This book is written by experts in the technology and business aspects of Machine-to-Machine and Internet of Things, and who have experience in implementing solutions.

Standards included: ETSI M2M, IEEE 802.15.4, 3GPP (GPRS, 3G, 4G), Bluetooth Low Energy/Smart, IETF 6LoWPAN, IETF CoAP, IETF RPL, Power Line Communication, Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Sensor Web Enablement (SWE), ZigBee, 802.11, Broadband Forum TR-069, Open Mobile Alliance (OMA) Device Management (DM), ISA100.11a, WirelessHART, M-BUS, Wireless M-BUS, KNX, RFID, Object Management Group (OMG) Business Process Modelling Notation (BPMN)Key technologies for M2M and IoT covered: Embedded systems hardware and software, devices and gateways, capillary and M2M area networks, local and wide area networking, M2M Service Enablement, IoT data management and data warehousing, data analytics and big data, complex event processing and stream analytics, knowledge discovery and management, business process and enterprise integration, Software as a Service and cloud computingCombines both technical explanations together with design features of M2M/IoT and use cases. Together, these descriptions will assist you to develop solutions that will work in the real worldDetailed description of the network architectures and technologies that form the basis of M2M and IoTClear guidelines and examples of M2M and IoT use cases from real-world implementations such as Smart Grid, Smart Buildings, Smart Cities, Participatory Sensing, and Industrial AutomationA description of the vision for M2M and its evolution towards IoT

Reimagining War in the 21st Century: From Clausewitz to Network-Centric Warfare

Reimagining War in the 21st Century: From Clausewitz to Network-Centric Warfare (Routledge Critical Security Studies)This book interrogates the philosophical backdrop of Clausewitzian notions of war, and asks whether modern, network-centric militaries can still be said to serve the ‘political’.

In light of the emerging theories and doctrines of Network-Centric War (NCW), this book traces the philosophical backdrop against which the more common theorizations of war and its conduct take place. Tracing the historical and philosophical roots of modern war from the 17th Century through to the present day, this book reveals that far from paralyzing the project of re-problematisating war, the emergence of NCW affords us an opportunity to rethink war in new and philosophically challenging ways.

This book will be of much interest to students of critical security studies, social theory, war studies and political theory/IR.

Manabrata Guha is Assistant Professor (ISSSP) at the National Institute of Advanced Studies, Bangalore, India.

Price: $125.00

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Cybersecurity and Human Rights in the Age of Cyberveillance

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Cybersecurity and Human Rights in the Age of Cyberveillance is a collection of articles by distinguished authors from the US and Europe and presents a contemporary perspectives on the limits online of human rights. By considering the latest political events and case law, including the NSA PRISM surveillance program controversy, the planned EU data protection amendments, and the latest European Court of Human Rights jurisprudence, it provides an analysis of the ongoing legal discourse on global cyberveillance.

Using examples from contemporary state practice, including content filtering and Internet shutdowns during the Arab Spring as well as the PRISM controversy, the authors identify limits of state and third party interference with individual human rights of Internet users. Analysis is based on existing human rights standards, as enshrined within international law including the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, European Convention on Human Rights and recommendations from the Human Rights Council. The definition of human rights, perceived as freedoms and liberties guaranteed to every human being by international legal consensus will be presented based on the rich body on international law.
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Secret War–Cyber Crime Track (Chinese Edition)

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Computer crime has always been upgraded in constant evolution. This book tells the story that the California computer expert Barrett Lyon noted a number of hacker attacking on commercial websites in 2004. He launched a follow-up investigation, and brought out a bunch of the Russian gang without causing the attention of the police.