The Internet has given rise to new opportunities for the public sector to improve efficiency and better serve constituents in the form of e-government. But with a rapidly growing user base globally and an increasing reliance on the Internet, digital tools are also exposing the public sector to new risks.
An accessible primer, Cybersecurity: Public Sector Threats and Responses focuses on the convergence of globalization, connectivity, and the migration of public sector functions online. It identifies the challenges you need to be aware of and examines emerging trends and strategies from around the world. Offering practical guidance for addressing contemporary risks, the book is organized into three sections:
Global Trends—considers international e-government trends, includes case studies of common cyber threats and presents efforts of the premier global institution in the field
National and Local Policy Approaches—examines the current policy environment in the United States and Europe and illustrates challenges at all levels of government
Practical Considerations—explains how to prepare for cyber attacks, including an overview of relevant U.S. Federal cyber incident response policies, an organizational framework for assessing risk, and emerging trends
Also suitable for classroom use, this book will help you understand the threats facing your organization and the issues to consider when thinking about cybersecurity from a policy perspective.
A complete guide to understanding and fighting advanced persistent threats—today’s most destructive risk to enterprise security
Reverse Deception: Organized Cyber Threat Counter-Exploitation explains how to identify advanced persistent threats (APTs), categorize them according to risk level, and prioritize your actions accordingly by applying expert, field-tested private- and government-sector methods (NSA, FBI, and DOD).
APTs cannot be seen, spread invisibly, and then continue to live in an enterprise network, undetected. In this one-of-a-kind book, the authors explain how to get—and stay—ahead of today’s well-organized and extremely persistent brand of network enemies. The book describes the characteristics of malware and botnets, how they can morph, evade detection, and spin off decoys that live in-network, while appearing to have been cleaned up and debugged. This detailed guide then reveals how to detect the appearance of malicious code, decode the types of enemies they originate from, and finally, how to extricate malcode and deflect its future entry into networks.
Full coverage of the #1 feared type of network attack today, the APT
Descriptions of cyber espionage tactics seen in the U.S. and internationally, with comparisons of the types of countermeasures permissible by law in the U.S. and Asia versus less strict countries in Europe, the Middle East, and Africa
Enthralling case studies and true stories from the authors’ FBI, DOD, NSA, and private sector work
Foreword by Fred Feer, a security professional with 40 years’ experience with the U.S. Army counterintelligence, CIA, RAND, and independent consulting
Complete coverage of key aspects of deception, counter-deception, behavioral profiling, and security within the cyber realm
Cat-and-mouse strategies from the best in the game—explains how to implement deception and disinformation techniques against a variety of incoming threats aimed at enticing adversaries out into the open
A fresh perspective on innovative, field-tested ideas for successfully countering current digital threats—plus expected characteristics of the next threats to come
Legal explanations of capabilities, limitations, and requirements for assisting law enforcement investigations
Deception Throughout History to Today; The Applications & Goals of Cyber Counterintelligence; The Missions and Outcomes of Criminal Profiling; Legal & Ethical Aspects of Deception; Attack Tradecraft; Operational Deception; Tools, Tactics & Procedures; Attack Attribution; Black Hat Motivators; Understanding Advanced Persistent Threats; When & When Not to Act; Implementation & Validation Tactics
The United States, our allies, and our partners face a spectrum of challenges, including violent transnational extremist networks, hostile states armed with weapons of mass destruction, rising regional powers, emerging space and cyber threats, natural and pandemic disasters, and a growing competition for resources. The Department of Defense must respond to these challenges while anticipating and preparing for those of tomorrow. We must balance strategic risk across our responses, making the best use of the tools at hand within the U.S. Government and among our international partners. To succeed, we must harness and integrate all aspects of national power and work closely with a wide range of allies, friends and partners. We cannot prevail if we act alone.
As noted in the 2006 QDR, state actors no longer have a monopoly over the catastrophic use of violence. Small groups or individuals can harness chemical, biological, or even crude radiological or nuclear devices to cause extensive damage and harm. Similarly, they can attack vulnerable points in cyberspace and disrupt commerce and daily life in the United States, causing economic damage, compromising sensitive information and materials, and interrupting critical services such as power and information networks. National security and domestic resources may be at risk, and the Department must help respond to protect lives and national assets. The Department will continue to be both bulwark and active protector in these areas. Yet, in the long run the Department of Defense is neither the best source of resources and capabilities nor the appropriate authority to shoulder these tasks. The comparative advantage, and applicable authorities, for action reside elsewhere in the U.S. Government, at other levels of government, in the private sector, and with partner nations. DoD should expect and plan to play a key supporting role in an interagency effort to combat these threats, and to help develop new capacities and capabilities, while protecting its own vulnerabilities.
In the contemporary strategic environment, the challenge is one of deterring or dissuading a range of potential adversaries from taking a variety of actions against the U.S. and our allies and interests. These adversaries could be states or non-state actors; they could use nuclear, conventional, or unconventional weapons; and they could exploit terrorism, electronic, cyber and other forms of warfare. Economic interdependence and the growth of global communications further complicate the situation. Not only do they blur the types of threats, they also exacerbate sensitivity to the effects of attacks and in some cases make it more difficult to attribute or trace them. Finally, the number of potential adversaries, the breadth of their capabilities, and the need to design approaches to deterrence for each, create new challenges.
An underlying assumption in our understanding of the strategic environment is that the predominant near-term challenges to the United States will come from state and non-state actors using irregular and catastrophic capabilities. Although our advanced space and cyber-space assets give us unparalleled advantages on the traditional battlefield, they also entail vulnerabilities.
China is developing technologies to disrupt our traditional advantages. Examples include development of anti-satellite capabilities and cyber warfare. Other actors, particularly non-state actors, are developing asymmetric tactics, techniques, and procedures that seek to avoid situations where our advantages come into play.
AFDD 3-12 is the US Air Force’s foundational doctrine publication for Air Force operations in, through, and from the cyberspace domain. It defines Cyberspace Superiority and speaks to US Air Force support of maintaining Cyberspace Superiority, a common military function.
“Today, we live in a globally-networked society that is increasingly dependent upon cyberspace access and security. Our ability to gain and maintain superiority in cyberspace has become essential to our ability to deliver global reach, power, and vigilance. As an integral member of the joint warfighting team, the Air Force is committed to growing, sustaining, and presenting highly skilled and well-equipped forces to joint force commanders who can deliver decisive effects in, from, and through cyberspace, while assuring our mission against an asymmetric cyber threat.
Freedom of action in the cyberspace domain enables our command, control, communication, computers, intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance capabilities. Our modern defenses, industrial base, and global commerce, as well as that of our nation’s enemies, depend on free use of land, sea, air, space, and cyberspace. Leverage in cyberspace affords influence and control across all other domains. This leverage increases our forces’ access, speed, reach, stealth, and precision.
Controlling the portions of cyberspace integral to our mission is a fundamental prerequisite to effective operations across the range of military operations. While we appreciate the power that cyber-enabled capabilities add, we also maintain a healthy respect for the asymmetric power that cyberspace affords our adversaries. We must maintain a constant commitment to educate, train, and equip our Airman to prevail in the contested domain of cyberspace.
In the past decade, technological advances have provided the means to generate decisive and magnified effects in domains that traditionally could only be achieved via kinetic means. We must continually adapt our operating concepts to leverage emerging cyberspace capabilities to ensure the Air Force maintains the decisive advantage over our adversaries.”
MAURICE H. FORSYTH
Major General, USAF
Commander, LeMay Center for Doctrine
Development and Education