Surviving Cyberwar

Surviving CyberwarMilitary and intelligence leaders agree that the next major war is not likely to be fought on the battleground but in cyber space. Richard Stiennon argues the era of cyber warfare has already begun. Recent cyber attacks on United States government departments and the Pentagon corroborate this claim. China has compromised email servers at the German Chancellery, Whitehall, and the Pentagon. In August 2008, Russia launched a cyber attack against Georgia that was commensurate with their invasion of South Ossetia. This was the first time that modern cyber attacks were used in conjunction with a physical attack. Every day, thousands of attempts are made to hack into America's critical infrastructure. These attacks, if successful, could have devastating consequences. In Surviving Cyberwar, Stiennon introduces cyberwar, outlines an effective defense against cyber threats, and explains how to prepare for future attacks.

 

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National Defense Strategy – United States of America

National Defense Strategy - United States of AmericaThe United States, our allies, and our partners face a spectrum of challenges, including violent transnational extremist networks, hostile states armed with weapons of mass destruction, rising regional powers, emerging space and cyber threats, natural and pandemic disasters, and a growing competition for resources. The Department of Defense must respond to these challenges while anticipating and preparing for those of tomorrow. We must balance strategic risk across our responses, making the best use of the tools at hand within the U.S. Government and among our international partners. To succeed, we must harness and integrate all aspects of national power and work closely with a wide range of allies, friends and partners. We cannot prevail if we act alone.

As noted in the 2006 QDR, state actors no longer have a monopoly over the catastrophic use of violence. Small groups or individuals can harness chemical, biological, or even crude radiological or nuclear devices to cause extensive damage and harm. Similarly, they can attack vulnerable points in cyberspace and disrupt commerce and daily life in the United States, causing economic damage, compromising sensitive information and materials, and interrupting critical services such as power and information networks. National security and domestic resources may be at risk, and the Department must help respond to protect lives and national assets. The Department will continue to be both bulwark and active protector in these areas. Yet, in the long run the Department of Defense is neither the best source of resources and capabilities nor the appropriate authority to shoulder these tasks. The comparative advantage, and applicable authorities, for action reside elsewhere in the U.S. Government, at other levels of government, in the private sector, and with partner nations. DoD should expect and plan to play a key supporting role in an interagency effort to combat these threats, and to help develop new capacities and capabilities, while protecting its own vulnerabilities.

In the contemporary strategic environment, the challenge is one of deterring or dissuading a range of potential adversaries from taking a variety of actions against the U.S. and our allies and interests. These adversaries could be states or non-state actors; they could use nuclear, conventional, or unconventional weapons; and they could exploit terrorism, electronic, cyber and other forms of warfare. Economic interdependence and the growth of global communications further complicate the situation. Not only do they blur the types of threats, they also exacerbate sensitivity to the effects of attacks and in some cases make it more difficult to attribute or trace them. Finally, the number of potential adversaries, the breadth of their capabilities, and the need to design approaches to deterrence for each, create new challenges.

An underlying assumption in our understanding of the strategic environment is that the predominant near-term challenges to the United States will come from state and non-state actors using irregular and catastrophic capabilities. Although our advanced space and cyber-space assets give us unparalleled advantages on the traditional battlefield, they also entail vulnerabilities.

China is developing technologies to disrupt our traditional advantages. Examples include development of anti-satellite capabilities and cyber warfare. Other actors, particularly non-state actors, are developing asymmetric tactics, techniques, and procedures that seek to avoid situations where our advantages come into play.

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2015 U.S. Intelligence Community Worldwide Threat Assessment – Clapper Testimony: Islamic State, ISIS, Cyber Threats, Russia, Iran, Terrorism, al-Qaida, North Korea, Syria, National Security Strategy

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Director of National Intelligence James R. Clapper Jr. presented the 2015 annual U.S. intelligence community worldwide threat assessment in Congressional testimony on February 26, 2015. In the published report, Clapper provides a thorough review of the status of possible threats from a wide variety of nations and terror groups. In addition to the 2015 assessment, this compilation includes the 2014, 2013, and 2012 assessments for comparison and historical reference, plus important additional material, including the 2015 Defense Intelligence Agency worldwide threat assessment, the Obama White House National Security Strategy issued in early February 2015, remarks by National Security Advisor Susan Rice on the NSS, and dozens of statements on national security and the intelligence community from expert witnesses and officials.

Obviously, the Islamic State (ISIS, or ISIL) is a major focus of these assessments, along with cyber threats from Russia, China, Iran, and North Korea. Other topics covered: Cyber * Counterintelligence * Terrorism * Weapons of Mass Destruction and Proliferation * Space and Counterspace * Transnational Organized Crime * Economics and Natural Resources * Human Security * REGIONAL THREATS * Middle East and North Africa * Iraq * Syria * Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant * Iran * Libya * Yemen * Lebanon * Egypt * Tunisia * Europe * Turkey * Key Partners * Russia and Eurasia * Russia * Ukraine, Moldova, and Belarus * The Caucasus and Central Asia * East Asia * China * North Korea * South Asia * Afghanistan * Pakistan * India * Sub-Saharan Africa * West Africa * Sudan * South Sudan * Nigeria * Somalia * Lord's Resistance Army * Central African Republic * The Sahel * Latin America and the Caribbean * Cuba * Central America * Venezuela * Haiti
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Cybersecurity: Public Sector Threats and Responses (Public Administration and Public Policy)

Cybersecurity: Public Sector Threats and Responses (Public Administration and Public Policy)The Internet has given rise to new opportunities for the public sector to improve efficiency and better serve constituents in the form of e-government. But with a rapidly growing user base globally and an increasing reliance on the Internet, digital tools are also exposing the public sector to new risks.

An accessible primer, Cybersecurity: Public Sector Threats and Responses focuses on the convergence of globalization, connectivity, and the migration of public sector functions online. It identifies the challenges you need to be aware of and examines emerging trends and strategies from around the world. Offering practical guidance for addressing contemporary risks, the book is organized into three sections:

 

  • Global Trends—considers international e-government trends, includes case studies of common cyber threats and presents efforts of the premier global institution in the field
  • National and Local Policy Approaches—examines the current policy environment in the United States and Europe and illustrates challenges at all levels of government
  • Practical Considerations—explains how to prepare for cyber attacks, including an overview of relevant U.S. Federal cyber incident response policies, an organizational framework for assessing risk, and emerging trends

 

Also suitable for classroom use, this book will help you understand the threats facing your organization and the issues to consider when thinking about cybersecurity from a policy perspective.

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