The “alarming and impassioned”* book on how the Internet is redefining constitutional law, now reissued as the first popular book revised online by its readers (*New York Times)
There’s a common belief that cyberspace cannot be regulated-that it is, in its very essence, immune from the government’s (or anyone else’s) control. Code, first published in 2000, argues that this belief is wrong. It is not in the nature of cyberspace to be unregulable; cyberspace has no “nature.” It only has code-the software and hardware that make cyberspace what it is. That code can create a place of freedom-as the original architecture of the Net did-or a place of oppressive control. Under the influence of commerce, cyberpsace is becoming a highly regulable space, where behavior is much more tightly controlled than in real space. But that’s not inevitable either. We can-we must-choose what kind of cyberspace we want and what freedoms we will guarantee. These choices are all about architecture: about what kind of code will govern cyberspace, and who will control it. In this realm, code is the most significant form of law, and it is up to lawyers, policymakers, and especially citizens to decide what values that code embodies.
Since its original publication, this seminal book has earned the status of a minor classic. This second edition, or Version 2.0, has been prepared through the author’s wiki, a web site that allows readers to edit the text, making this the first reader-edited revision of a popular book.
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Has the Stuxnet worm ushered in a new era of cyberwar, or is it simply the latest iteration of familiar strategic instruments? Has the Internet irrevocably shifted the balance between individuals and states, or will governments adapt to regain the upper hand? Does the real threat to cybersystems lie within cyberspace, or in the real world? Cyberwar has become a permanent feature of the strategic landscape, but we might hardly know it.
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Cyber Blockades is the first book to examine the phenomena of blockade operations in cyberspace, large-scale attacks on infrastructure or systems that aim to prevent an entire state from sending or receiving electronic data. Cyber blockades can take place through digital, physical, and/or electromagnetic means. Blockade operations have historically been considered acts of war, thus their emergence in cyberspace has significant implications for international law and for our understanding of cyber warfare.
The author defines and explains the emerging concept of "cyber blockades" and presents a unique comparison of blockade operations in five different domains — on land, at sea, in the air, in space, and in cyberspace — identifying common elements as well as important distinctions. Alison Lawlor Russell's framework for defining cyber blockades, understanding how they occur, and considering the motivations of actors who employ them is applied with in-depth analysis of the cyber attacks on Estonia in 2007 and on Georgia during the 2008 Georgia-Russia War.
Blockade operations have occurred in cyberspace and will doubtlessly be used again in the future, by both state and non-state actors alike, because of the unique advantages of this type of attack. This book offers recommendations for policymakers contemplating or confronted by such attacks. Cyber Blockades is also a must-read for scholars and students of security studies, terrorism, substate groups, and the future of warfare.
Instituto Sagres gave the lecture “The Intelligence and Cyber Power”. The event occurred on 19 September 2012 and was part of the Cyber Intelligence Symposium, organized by the Brazilian Army Intelligence School (EsIMEx).
The approach is an analogy with the rise of Air Power and its Theories, as well as Air Forces, from the invention of the balloon, by priest Bartolomeu de Gusmão, to the present day, under the focus of Intelligence for military use. Examines aspects of the emergence of Air Power Theories and as in its early days the air vector was seen only as a tool for Intelligence, without any military value as stated by Marshal Foch in 1910, notably with use only for the (Aerial) Reconnaissance, replacing the cavalry and later seen as a replacement to the high spots on the ground, as the Military Doctrine of the time. In this analogy, we have uncovered a probable metric for chronology of emergent Cyber Power in function of the use of the Fifth Dimension: Cyberspace; until then only seen as a source of Intelligence, without any military value. The author leads the audience to question at what timeline point, in the use of Cyberspace, we would be: at the time of the Duque de Caxias balloons (or American Civil War) or UAV? The speaker brings to reflect the questioning of how far away we are from what could be Cyber Power Theories and Cyber Forces (the next Force among Armed Forces) and how Intelligence has and will have a key role in this evolution.
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Cyber Terrorism: Political and Economic Implications is a cyber terrorism brief that outlines many of the recent terrorist activities, political objectives, and their use of cyberspace. Much of this book is dedicated to illustrating the use of the global information infrastructure by terrorists for the communication and coordination of distributed terrorist cells, the gathering of target intelligence, and the use of cyber criminal activities as a force multiplier for both physical attacks and infrastructure destabilization. This book identifies the underlying technologies of the global information infrastructure as a means for presenting how critical this emerging domain has become. It then discusses the current attack methods and lays out a series of scenarios for key industry sectors. Lastly, Cyber Terrorism: Political and Economic Implications puts forward prevention and response policies for reducing cyber terrorism activities in the context of traditional information security objectives.
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