The global reliance on computers, networks and systems continues to grow. As our dependency grows so do the threats that target our military s Command, Control, Communications, Computers, Intelligence, Surveillance, Reconnaissance (C4ISR) systems as well as the operational components and electronic controls for our critical infrastructure. Over the past decade we have experienced a substantial rise in the complexity and sophistication of cyber attacks as well as a frightening increase in the impact of some of the attacks. Every computer is a potential cyber weapon waiting to be loaded and used by extremists, criminals, terrorists and rogue nation states. As the world becomes more and more dependent on computers and information technology, the greater the risk of cyber attacks. Government and military leaders now face this fact and our critical systems and infrastructure remain at great risk! This risk has made the ability to defend these critical systems and direct cyber attacks core capabilities required for the modern military. In the age of cyber conflict, leaders need to understand the weapons and strategies used to wage this rapidly evolving type of warfare. This handbook will provide the background needed to understand the new world of cyber warfare, define the tools and techniques for offensive and defensive action, and provide insight into the strategies behind building a dynamic and relevant cyber warfare capability.
In September 2010, media reports emerged about a new form of cyber attack that appeared to target Iran, although the actual target, if any, is unknown. Through the use of thumb drives in computers that were not connected to the Internet, a malicious software program known as Stuxnet infected computer systems that were used to control the functioning of a nuclear power plant. Once inside the system, Stuxnet had the ability to degrade or destroy the software on which it operated. Although early reports focused on the impact on facilities in Iran, researchers discovered that the program had spread throughout multiple countries worldwide.
From the perspective of many national security and technology observers, the emergence of the Stuxnet worm is the type of risk that threatens to cause harm to many activities deemed critical to the basic functioning of modern society. The Stuxnet worm covertly attempts to identify and exploit equipment that controls a nation’s critical infrastructure. A successful attack by a software application such as the Stuxnet worm could result in manipulation of control system code to the point of inoperability or long-term damage. Should such an incident occur, recovery from the damage to the computer systems programmed to monitor and manage a facility and the physical equipment producing goods or services could be significantly delayed. Depending on the severity of the attack, the interconnected nature of the affected critical infrastructure facilities, and government preparation and response plans, entities and individuals relying on these facilities could be without life sustaining or comforting services for a long period of time. The resulting damage to the nation’s critical infrastructure could threaten many aspects of life, including the government’s ability to safeguard national security interests.
Iranian officials have claimed that Stuxnet caused only minor damage to its nuclear program, yet the potential impact of this type of malicious software could be far-reaching. The discovery of the Stuxnet worm has raised several issues for Congress, including the effect on national security, what the government’s response should be, whether an international treaty to curb the use of malicious software is necessary, and how such a treaty could be implemented. Congress may also consider the government’s role in protecting critical infrastructure and whether new authorities may be required for oversight.
The Internet, as well as other telecommunication networks and information systems, have become an integrated part of our daily lives, and our dependency upon their underlying infrastructure is ever-increasing. Unfortunately, as our dependency has grown, so have hostile attacks on the cyber infrastructure by network predators. The lack of security as a core element in the initial design of these information systems has made common desktop software, infrastructure services, and information networks increasingly vulnerable to continuous and innovative breakers of security. Worms, viruses, and spam are examples of attacks that cost the global economy billions of dollars in lost productivity. Sophisticated distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks that use thousands of web robots (bots) on the Internet and telecommunications networks are on the rise. The ramifications of these attacks are clear: the potential for a devastating largescale network failure, service interruption, or the total unavailability of service. Yet many security programs are based solely on reactive measures, such as the patching of software or the detection of attacks that have already occurred, instead of proactive measures that prevent attacks in the first place. Most of the network security configurations are performed manually and require experts to monitor, tune security devices, and recover from attacks. On the other hand, attacks are getting more sophisticated and highly automated, which gives the attackers an advantage in this technology race. A key contribution of this book is that it provides an integrated view and a comprehensive framework of the various issues relating to cyber infrastructure protection. It covers not only strategy and policy issues, but it also covers social, legal, and technical aspects of cyber security as well. We strongly recommend this book for policymakers and researchers so that they may stay abreast of the latest research and develop a greater understanding of cyber security issues.
A complete guide to understanding and fighting advanced persistent threats—today’s most destructive risk to enterprise security
Reverse Deception: Organized Cyber Threat Counter-Exploitation explains how to identify advanced persistent threats (APTs), categorize them according to risk level, and prioritize your actions accordingly by applying expert, field-tested private- and government-sector methods (NSA, FBI, and DOD).
APTs cannot be seen, spread invisibly, and then continue to live in an enterprise network, undetected. In this one-of-a-kind book, the authors explain how to get—and stay—ahead of today’s well-organized and extremely persistent brand of network enemies. The book describes the characteristics of malware and botnets, how they can morph, evade detection, and spin off decoys that live in-network, while appearing to have been cleaned up and debugged. This detailed guide then reveals how to detect the appearance of malicious code, decode the types of enemies they originate from, and finally, how to extricate malcode and deflect its future entry into networks.
Full coverage of the #1 feared type of network attack today, the APT
Descriptions of cyber espionage tactics seen in the U.S. and internationally, with comparisons of the types of countermeasures permissible by law in the U.S. and Asia versus less strict countries in Europe, the Middle East, and Africa
Enthralling case studies and true stories from the authors’ FBI, DOD, NSA, and private sector work
Foreword by Fred Feer, a security professional with 40 years’ experience with the U.S. Army counterintelligence, CIA, RAND, and independent consulting
Complete coverage of key aspects of deception, counter-deception, behavioral profiling, and security within the cyber realm
Cat-and-mouse strategies from the best in the game—explains how to implement deception and disinformation techniques against a variety of incoming threats aimed at enticing adversaries out into the open
A fresh perspective on innovative, field-tested ideas for successfully countering current digital threats—plus expected characteristics of the next threats to come
Legal explanations of capabilities, limitations, and requirements for assisting law enforcement investigations
Deception Throughout History to Today; The Applications & Goals of Cyber Counterintelligence; The Missions and Outcomes of Criminal Profiling; Legal & Ethical Aspects of Deception; Attack Tradecraft; Operational Deception; Tools, Tactics & Procedures; Attack Attribution; Black Hat Motivators; Understanding Advanced Persistent Threats; When & When Not to Act; Implementation & Validation Tactics
This book argues that Network Centric Warfare (NCW) influences how developed militaries operate in the same fashion that an operating system influences the development of computer software.
It examines three inter-related issues: the overwhelming military power of the United States; the growing influence of NCW on military thinking; and the centrality of coalition operations in modern military endeavours. Irrespective of terrorist threats and local insurgencies, the present international structure is remarkably stable – none of the major powers seeks to alter the system from its present liberal character, as demonstrated by the lack of a military response to US military primacy. This primacy privileges the American military doctrine and thus the importance of NCW, which promises a future of rapid, precise, and highly efficient operations, but also a future predicated on the ‘digitization’ of the battle space. Participation in future American-led military endeavours will require coalition partners to be networked: ‘interoperability’ will therefore be a key consideration of a partner’s strategic worth.
Network Centric Warfare and Coalition Operations will be of great interest to students of strategic studies, international security, US foreign policy and international relations in general.