Internet filtering, censorship of Web content, and online surveillance are increasing in scale, scope, and sophistication around the world, in democratic countries as well as in authoritarian states. The first generation of Internet controls consisted largely of building firewalls at key Internet gateways; China's famous Great Firewall of China is one of the first national Internet filtering systems. Today the new tools for Internet controls that are emerging go beyond mere denial of information. These new techniques, which aim to normalize (or even legalize) Internet control, include targeted viruses and the strategically timed deployment of distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks, surveillance at key points of the Internet's infrastructure, take-down notices, stringent terms of usage policies, and national information shaping strategies. Access Controlled reports on this new normative terrain.
The book, a project from the OpenNet Initiative (ONI), a collaboration of the Citizen Lab at the University of Toronto's Munk Centre for International Studies, Harvard's Berkman Center for Internet and Society, and the SecDev Group, offers six substantial chapters that analyze Internet control in both Western and Eastern Europe and a section of shorter regional reports and country profiles drawn from material gathered by the ONI around the world through a combination of technical interrogation and field research methods.
Chapters: Internet Censorship in the People's Republic of China, Green Dam Youth Escort (绿坝·花季护航), Blocking of Wikipedia by the People's Republic of China, List of Websites Blocked in the People's Republic of China, Golden Shield Project, War of Internet Addiction, List of Words Censored by Search Engines in the People's Republic of China, History of Internet Censorship in the People's Republic of China, Very Erotic Very Violent, 50 Cent Party, List of Internet Phenomena in the People's Republic of China, Big Mama, Elgoog. Excerpt: 50 Cent Party (Chinese : ; pinyin : W máo D ng), also called 50 Cent Army , refers to paid astroturfing internet commentators working for the People's Republic of China , whose role is posting comments favorable towards the government policies to skew the public opinion on various Internet message boards. They are named after the 50 Chinese cents, or 5 mao, they are paid per such post, other names are red vests , red vanguard and the Five Mao Party . Conservative estimates put the strength of the 50 Cents Army at tens of thousands while other estimates put their numbers as high as 280,000 300,000. Their activities were described by Chinese President Hu Jintao as “a new pattern of public-opinion guidance”. They operate primarily in Chinese, but English language posts appear as well. Their effect is most felt at the domestic Chinese-language websites, bulletin board systems , and chatrooms . Their role is to steer the discussion away from anti-party articulations, politically sensitive or “unacceptable” content and advance the party line of the Communist Party of China . It has been argued that it is not so much censorship but a public relations tactic. According to the Indian Daily News and Analysis , “to this day, anyone who posts a blatantly propagandist pro-Communist …
Internet users in the People's Republic of China may not enjoy the same World Wide Web as the rest of the world, but their web viewing experience is edging closer to reality. The government of China is not the only administration to exercise the practice of internet censorship, but it is among the most notorious. Internet censorship in China is a complicated process that is constantly changing. This study found that it is still common for sensitive material to be unavailable in China but the severity of censorship is lessening. It was conducted in order to test the extent of control which the Chinese government has over what its internet users' view on the internet. Through the longevity of this study and evaluations to past studies, it can be said the internet in China is becoming less controlled. The Great Firewall of China could be falling down. This could be leading to a better informed and more connected Chinese society.