CyberWar

Si Vis Pacem, Para Bellum

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USAF Cyberspace Operations Doctrine Document – AFDD 3-12

USAF Cyberspace Operations Doctrine Document - AFDD 3-12AFDD 3-12 is the US Air Force’s foundational doctrine publication for Air Force operations in, through, and from the cyberspace domain. It defines Cyberspace Superiority and speaks to US Air Force support of maintaining Cyberspace Superiority, a common military function.

“Today, we live in a globally-networked society that is increasingly dependent upon cyberspace access and security. Our ability to gain and maintain superiority in cyberspace has become essential to our ability to deliver global reach, power, and vigilance. As an integral member of the joint warfighting team, the Air Force is committed to growing, sustaining, and presenting highly skilled and well-equipped forces to joint force commanders who can deliver decisive effects in, from, and through cyberspace, while assuring our mission against an asymmetric cyber threat.

Freedom of action in the cyberspace domain enables our command, control, communication, computers, intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance capabilities. Our modern defenses, industrial base, and global commerce, as well as that of our nation’s enemies, depend on free use of land, sea, air, space, and cyberspace. Leverage in cyberspace affords influence and control across all other domains. This leverage increases our forces’ access, speed, reach, stealth, and precision.

Controlling the portions of cyberspace integral to our mission is a fundamental prerequisite to effective operations across the range of military operations. While we appreciate the power that cyber-enabled capabilities add, we also maintain a healthy respect for the asymmetric power that cyberspace affords our adversaries. We must maintain a constant commitment to educate, train, and equip our Airman to prevail in the contested domain of cyberspace.

In the past decade, technological advances have provided the means to generate decisive and magnified effects in domains that traditionally could only be achieved via kinetic means. We must continually adapt our operating concepts to leverage emerging cyberspace capabilities to ensure the Air Force maintains the decisive advantage over our adversaries.”

MAURICE H. FORSYTH
Major General, USAF
Commander, LeMay Center for Doctrine
Development and Education

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National Defense Strategy – United States of America

National Defense Strategy - United States of AmericaThe United States, our allies, and our partners face a spectrum of challenges, including violent transnational extremist networks, hostile states armed with weapons of mass destruction, rising regional powers, emerging space and cyber threats, natural and pandemic disasters, and a growing competition for resources. The Department of Defense must respond to these challenges while anticipating and preparing for those of tomorrow. We must balance strategic risk across our responses, making the best use of the tools at hand within the U.S. Government and among our international partners. To succeed, we must harness and integrate all aspects of national power and work closely with a wide range of allies, friends and partners. We cannot prevail if we act alone.

As noted in the 2006 QDR, state actors no longer have a monopoly over the catastrophic use of violence. Small groups or individuals can harness chemical, biological, or even crude radiological or nuclear devices to cause extensive damage and harm. Similarly, they can attack vulnerable points in cyberspace and disrupt commerce and daily life in the United States, causing economic damage, compromising sensitive information and materials, and interrupting critical services such as power and information networks. National security and domestic resources may be at risk, and the Department must help respond to protect lives and national assets. The Department will continue to be both bulwark and active protector in these areas. Yet, in the long run the Department of Defense is neither the best source of resources and capabilities nor the appropriate authority to shoulder these tasks. The comparative advantage, and applicable authorities, for action reside elsewhere in the U.S. Government, at other levels of government, in the private sector, and with partner nations. DoD should expect and plan to play a key supporting role in an interagency effort to combat these threats, and to help develop new capacities and capabilities, while protecting its own vulnerabilities.

In the contemporary strategic environment, the challenge is one of deterring or dissuading a range of potential adversaries from taking a variety of actions against the U.S. and our allies and interests. These adversaries could be states or non-state actors; they could use nuclear, conventional, or unconventional weapons; and they could exploit terrorism, electronic, cyber and other forms of warfare. Economic interdependence and the growth of global communications further complicate the situation. Not only do they blur the types of threats, they also exacerbate sensitivity to the effects of attacks and in some cases make it more difficult to attribute or trace them. Finally, the number of potential adversaries, the breadth of their capabilities, and the need to design approaches to deterrence for each, create new challenges.

An underlying assumption in our understanding of the strategic environment is that the predominant near-term challenges to the United States will come from state and non-state actors using irregular and catastrophic capabilities. Although our advanced space and cyber-space assets give us unparalleled advantages on the traditional battlefield, they also entail vulnerabilities.

China is developing technologies to disrupt our traditional advantages. Examples include development of anti-satellite capabilities and cyber warfare. Other actors, particularly non-state actors, are developing asymmetric tactics, techniques, and procedures that seek to avoid situations where our advantages come into play.

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National Strategy of Defense – Peace and Security for Brazil

National Strategy of Defense - Peace and Security for BrazilBrazil is a peaceful country, by tradition and conviction. It lives in peace with its neighbors. It runs its international affairs, among other things, adopting the constitutional principles of non-intervention, defense of peace and peaceful resolution of conflicts. This pacifist trait is part of the national identity, and a value that should be preserved by the Brazilian people.
Brazil – a developing country – shall rise to the first stage in the world neither promoting hegemony nor domination. The Brazilian people are not willing to exert their power on other nations. They want Brazil to grow without reigning upon others.
This is perhaps the reason why Brazil has never conducted a wide discussion about its own defense affairs throughout its history. Periodically, governments used to authorize the acquisition or production of new defense products, and introduced specific reforms in the Armed Forces. However, a national strategy of defense has never been proposed to systematically guide the reorganization and reorientation of the Armed Forces; the organization of the defense industry in order to ensure the operational autonomy of the three service branches: the Navy, the Army and the Air Force; and the policies for the composition of their troops, moreover reconsidering the Mandatory Military Service.
However, if Brazil is willing to reach its deserved spot in the world, it will have to be prepared to defend itself not only from aggressions, but equally from threats.
Intimidation overrides good faith in the world where we live. Nothing substitutes the engagement of the Brazilian people in the debate and construction of their own defense.

The 6th National Strategy of Defense guideline:

“To strengthen three strategically important sectors: cybernetics, space and nuclear. This process of strengthening will ensure the fulfillment of the concept of flexibility. As a result of their own nature, these sectors transcend the border line between development and defense, between the civilian and the military. Both space and cybernetics sectors will, together, enable that the capacity to see one’s own country do not depend on foreign technology, and that the Armed Forces, together, can network supported by a monitoring system also space-based. Brazil is committed – as per the Federal Constitution and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons – to the strictly peaceful use of nuclear energy. However, Brazil also asserts its strategic need to develop and master nuclear technology. The country needs to ensure the balance and the versatility of its energy matrix and advance in areas such as agriculture and health, which may benefit from nuclear energy technology. And carry out, among other initiatives that require technological independence in terms of nuclear energy, the nuclear-propelled submarine project.”

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Download National Strategy of Defense – Peace and security for Brazil
Download Estrategia Nacional de Defensa – Paz y seguridad para Brasil
Download Stratégie Nationale de Défense – Paix et Sécurité au Brésil

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The Undeclared War: Class Conflict in the Age of Cyber Capitalism

The Undeclared War: Class Conflict in the Age of Cyber CapitalismDr. Berg P. Hyacinthe (PhD, Florida State University; LLD Candidate, Assas School of Law, CERSA-CNRS, La Sorbonne) is internationally recognized as an eminent and multidisciplinary scientific investigator. A U.S. patent holder featured in Harvard’s Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System, Dr. Hyacinthe recently served as Assistant Professor and Scientific Advisor to Taibah University’s Strategic Science & Advanced Technology Unit. Dr. Hyacinthe held several positions at County and State levels of the U.S Government in the Information Technology arena. He has been featured in conferences held at the U.S. Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey (author); Defence Academy of the United Kingdom, Shrivenham (invited session Chair); and National Defence College, Helsinki (session Chair). In CYBER WARRIORS AT WAR, he draws on the triangular relationship between technology, law, and Information Age warfare to propose solutions against potential charges of having committed Information Operations (IO) war crimes and/or IO crimes against humanity. According to Dr. Hyacinthe, the success of pre-emptive strikes and decisive military operations depends profoundly upon both reliable human intelligence and the versatile skills of 21st century “cyber warriors” whose IO activities are conducted through modern warfare’s pentagonal synchrony – land, sea, air, cyberspace, and outer space. Unfortunately, these operations are commonly effectuated under a legal reasoning that is ambiguous in important ways: a threat to the national security of the United States of America and to the entire international community. Hence, as this Essay argues, the evolution of modern computer systems as weapons of war compels wary jurists to turn to the laws that should govern development and use of lethal information technologies. Further, this Essay examines how certain military operations within Information Warfare (IW) require new legal framework, and recounts specific events involving various types of IW conduct and cyber attack: an interesting exposé to jurists, military personnel, policymakers, and the growing and diverse body of information professionals around the world.

Price: $35.17

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Cyber Commander’s Handbook

Cyber Commander's HandbookThe global reliance on computers, networks and systems continues to grow. As our dependency grows so do the threats that target our military s Command, Control, Communications, Computers, Intelligence, Surveillance, Reconnaissance (C4ISR) systems as well as the operational components and electronic controls for our critical infrastructure. Over the past decade we have experienced a substantial rise in the complexity and sophistication of cyber attacks as well as a frightening increase in the impact of some of the attacks. Every computer is a potential cyber weapon waiting to be loaded and used by extremists, criminals, terrorists and rogue nation states. As the world becomes more and more dependent on computers and information technology, the greater the risk of cyber attacks. Government and military leaders now face this fact and our critical systems and infrastructure remain at great risk! This risk has made the ability to defend these critical systems and direct cyber attacks core capabilities required for the modern military. In the age of cyber conflict, leaders need to understand the weapons and strategies used to wage this rapidly evolving type of warfare. This handbook will provide the background needed to understand the new world of cyber warfare, define the tools and techniques for offensive and defensive action, and provide insight into the strategies behind building a dynamic and relevant cyber warfare capability.

Price: $29.95
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