The Evolution of Preemptive Strikes in Israeli Operational Planning and Future Implication for Cyber Domain

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The strategic and operational use of preemptive strikes transitioned from the traditional tactic of air raids to the use of covert cyber-attacks like Stuxnet designed specifically to disrupt enemy capabilities. Through a close examination of the evolution of preemptive strikes by the Israeli Defense Forces from the 1967 and 1973 wars to its airstrikes on neighboring nuclear production facilities in Iraq and Syria to its use of Stuxnet, operational planners can gain an understanding of the evolution of preemption as a concept. Examining this shift from air strikes to cyber-attacks through the lens of U.S. Army Doctrine and the tenets of Unified Land Operations (Depth, Synchronization, Integration, Adaptability, Flexibility, and Lethality) as well as the cyber concepts of Untraceability and Deception from modern thinkers gives operational planners a deeper understanding of how to conceptualize and integrate cyber activities into planning. By grasping these concepts and their usage in cyber, planners can gain a position of relative cognitive advantage when using preemptive attacks. Conceptualizing and interpreting the evolutionary process of Israeli operational planners and their understanding and planning of preemptive attacks can shed light on how they disaggregated depth and integrated cyber into preemption. Understanding how planners can better utilize cyber weapons similar to Stuxnet in preemptive strikes, contributes to the U.S. Army’s ability to retain its position of relative advantage over its adversaries in future wars.

Cyber Warfare: A Reference Handbook (Contemporary World Issues)

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Cyber warfare is gaining prominence as a serious tactic in military conflicts throughout the world. And, as the most network-dependent nation on earth, the United States is the most vulnerable. Military expert and author Paul J. Springer examines the many facets of cyber combat—from the threats of information exposure that American civilians encounter on a daily basis, to the concern of keeping up with the capabilities of China and Russia, to the inherent dangers in ignoring cyber threats.

This essential reference—the only of its kind to include an overview of other cyber warfare literature—emphasizes the importance of cyber operations in modern conflicts, detailing the efforts that have been made by government agencies to create networks that are secure. Noted experts in the field weigh in on the problems of attribution during a cyber attack, the detection of cyber intrusions, and the possible solutions for preventing data breaches. The book features profiles of theorists, commanders, and inventors; as well as organizations dedicated to cyber attacks, including government and military operations, industrial cyber security companies, and academic centers.

Anticipating Surprise: Analysis for Strategic Warning

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Anticipating Surprise, originally written as a manual for training intelligence analysts during the Cold War, has been declassified and condensed to provide wider audiences with an inside look at intelligence gathering and analysis for strategic warning. Cynthia Grabo defines the essential steps in the warning process, examines distinctive ingredients of the analytic method of intelligence gathering, and discusses the guidelines for assessing the meaning of gathered information. Since the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks on America, intelligence collection and analysis has been hotly debated. In this book, Grabo suggests ways of improving warning assessments that better convey warnings to policymakers and military commanders who are responsible for taking appropriate action to avert disaster.

Cyber Warfare: Its Implications on National Security

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Each era brings with it new techniques and methods of waging a war. While military scholars and experts have mastered land, sea, air and space warfare, time has come that they studied the art of cyberwar too. Our neighbours have acquired the capabilities to undertake this new form of asymmetric form of warfare. India too therefore needs to acquire the capabilities to counter their threat. Cyber space seems to have invaded every aspect of our life. More and more systems whether public or private are getting automated and networked. This high dependence of our critical infrastructure on Information and Communication Technology exposes it to the vulnerabilities of cyberspace. Enemy now can target such infrastructure through the cyberspace and degrade/ destroy them. This implies that the critical information infrastructure of the country and military networks today are both equally vulnerable to enemy’s cyberattacks. India therefore must protect its critical information infrastructure as she would protect the military infrastructure in the battlefield. Public – Private Partnership model is the only model which would succeed in doing so. While the Government needs to lay down the policies and frame the right laws, private sector needs to invest into cyber security. Organisations at national level and at the level of armed forces need to be raised which can protect our assets and are also capable of undertaking offensive cyber operations. This book is an attempt to understand various nuances of cyber warfare and how it affects our national security. Based on the cyber threat environment, the books recommends a framework of cyber doctrine and cyber strategies as well as organisational structure of various organisations which a nation needs to invest in.

Cyber War versus Cyber Realities: Cyber Conflict in the International System

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In 2011, the United States government declared a cyber attack as equal to an act of war, punishable with conventional military means. Cyber operations, cyber crime, and other forms of cyber activities directed by one state against another are now considered part of the normal relations range of combat and conflict, and the rising fear of cyber conflict has brought about a reorientation of military affairs. What is the reality of this threat? Is it actual or inflated, fear or fact-based? Taking a bold stand against the mainstream wisdom, Valeriano and Maness argue that there is very little evidence that cyber war is, or is likely to become, a serious threat. Their claim is empirically grounded, involving a careful analysis of cyber incidents and disputes experienced by international states since 2001, and an examination of the processes leading to cyber conflict. As the authors convincingly show, cyber incidents are a little-used tactic, with low-level intensity and few to no long-term effects. As well, cyber incidents are motivated by the same dynamics that prompt regional conflicts. Based on this evidence, Valeriano and Maness lay out a set of policy recommendations for proper defense against cyber threats that is built on restraint and regionalism.