Cyber Operations and the Use of Force in International Law

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The internet has changed the rules of many industries, and war is no exception. But can a computer virus be classed as an act of war? Does a Denial of Service attack count as an armed attack? And does a state have a right to self-defence when cyber attacked? With the range and sophistication of cyber attacks against states showing a dramatic increase in recent times, this book investigates the traditional concepts of 'use of force', 'armed attack', and 'armed conflict' and asks whether existing laws created for analogue technologies can be applied to new digital developments.

The book provides a comprehensive analysis of primary documents and surrounding literature, to investigate whether and how existing rules on the use of force in international law apply to a relatively new phenomenon such as cyberspace operations. It assesses the rules of jus ad bellum and jus in bello, whether based on treaty or custom, and analyses why each rule applies or does not apply to cyber operations. Those rules which can be seen to apply are then discussed in the context of each specific type of cyber operation. The book addresses the key questions of whether a cyber operation amounts to the use of force and, if so, whether the victim state can exercise its right of self-defence; whether cyber operations trigger the application of international humanitarian law when they are not accompanied by traditional hostilities; what rules must be followed in the conduct of cyber hostilities; how neutrality is affected by cyber operations; whether those conducting cyber operations are combatants, civilians, or civilians taking direct part in hostilities. The book is essential reading for everyone wanting a better understanding of how international law regulates cyber combat.

Blackstone’s Handbook of Cyber Crime Investigation

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This authoritative Handbook provides a clear and detailed introduction to cyber crime, offering you an effective operational guide to the complexities and challenges of investigating cyber-related crimes.

Written by a team of cyber crime experts, this unique book provides all police practitioners and partners with an operational reference and resource addressing all manner of cyber crime threats, including online anti-social behavior, hate crime, organized cyber crime, fraud, online child exploitation, and cyber terrorism and the terrorist use of the Internet. Presented in three main parts, Part 1 offers an overview of the different types of cyber crime along with explanations of the national structures and strategies in place to combat them, as well as case studies and scenarios. Part 2 offers practical guidance on the different categories of cyber crime and features contributions from organizations such as the National Crime Agency, and Part 3 covers the key legislation, police powers and points to prove relevant to each key category of offending and is written by the Police National Legal Database. All sections in Part 3 are accompanied by explanatory notes and related case law, ensuring quick and clear translation of cyber crime powers and provisions.
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The Culture of Connectivity: A Critical History of Social Media

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Social media penetrate our lives: Facebook, YouTube, Twitter and many other platforms define daily habits of communication and creative production. This book studies the rise of social media, providing both a historical and a critical analysis of the emergence of major platforms in the context of a rapidly changing ecosystem of connective media. Author Jose van Dijck offers an analytical prism that can be used to view techno-cultural as well as socio-economic aspects of this transformation as well as to examine shared ideological principles between major social media platforms. This fascinating study will appeal to all readers interested in social media.

A Guide to National Security: Threats, Responses and Strategies

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A Guide to National Security offers an analysis of the threats and policy responses facing the UK, presented within the framework of the Government's National Security Strategy and the Strategic Defence and Security Review. It explores the processes and developments which have shaped the transformation of national security over the last three decades, and critically examines the processes of politicisation and securitisation that have delivered the new strategic vision.

Presented in three parts, the book has taken one of the key recommendations from the National Security Strategy – collaboration between police and national security agencies – and used this as both the viewpoint from which to assess the current state of play regarding the UK's national security, as well as the approach to identifying future threats and creating policies and tactics to deal with them. Part One: Threats sets the scene for the current status of national security in the UK and relates this to the rest of the world, before moving on to the myriad of possible threats facing governments and intelligence services, from organised crime and terrorism to cyber-threats and failed states. Part Two: Responses looks at the interaction between governments and other agencies in response to a threat, how that framework functions and is organized, as well as the action or response taken. Finally, Part Three: Strategies offers a range of considerations for the future, including making a case for military restructuring, discussing domestic policies regarding radicalisation and other internal security issues, and the building of partnerships with the EU and the rest of the world, as well as within current international organizations, such as the UN and NATO. Throughout, the book presents opinions from leading figures across the agencies, including the National Security Council and members of ACPO, as well as case studies and suggestions for further investigation.
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China and Cybersecurity: Espionage, Strategy, and Politics in the Digital Domain

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China's emergence as a great power in the twenty-first century is strongly enabled by cyberspace. Leveraged information technology integrates Chinese firms into the global economy, modernizes infrastructure, and increases internet penetration which helps boost export-led growth. China's pursuit of "informatization" reconstructs industrial sectors and solidifies the transformation of the Chinese People's Liberation Army into a formidable regional power. Even as the government censors content online, China has one of the fastest growing internet populations and most of the technology is created and used by civilians.
Western political discourse on cybersecurity is dominated by news of Chinese military development of cyberwarfare capabilities and cyber exploitation against foreign governments, corporations, and non-governmental organizations. Western accounts, however, tell only one side of the story. Chinese leaders are also concerned with cyber insecurity, and Chinese authors frequently note that China is also a victim of foreign cyber — attacks — predominantly from the United States.
China and Cybersecurity: Espionage, Strategy, and Politics in the Digital Domain is a comprehensive analysis of China's cyberspace threats and policies. The contributors — Chinese specialists in cyber dynamics, experts on China, and experts on the use of information technology between China and the West — address cyberspace threats and policies, emphasizing the vantage points of China and the U.S. on cyber exploitation and the possibilities for more positive coordination with the West. The volume's multi-disciplinary, cross-cultural approach does not pretend to offer wholesale resolutions. Contributors take different stances on how problems may be analyzed and reduced, and aim to inform the international audience of how China's political, economic, and security systems shape cyber activities. The compilation provides empirical and evaluative depth on the deepening dependence on shared global information infrastructure and the growing willingness to exploit it for political or economic gain.