This report presents an open source analysis of North Korea’s cyber operations capabilities and its strategic implications for the United States and South Korea. The purpose is to mitigate the current knowledge gap among various academic and policy communities on the topic by synthesizing authoritative and comprehensive open source reference material. The report is divided into three chapters, the first chapter examining North Korea’s cyber strategy. The authors then provide an assessment of North Korea’s cyber operations capabilities by examining the organizational structure, history, and functions of North Korea’s cyber units, their supporting educational training and technology base, and past cyber attacks widely attributed to North Korea. This assessment is followed by a discussion on policy implications for U.S. and ROK policymakers and the larger security community.
We are living in an era in which terrorism demands our constant attention. Few people in North America or Western Europe have the capacity to study and analyze the wide scale number and kinds of threats facing us as a civilization. Even fewer can make constructive suggestions on how to meet and eliminate these threats in an effective way. Van Hipp discusses the full range of threats. Not just the constant threats of suicide bombers, airplane hijacking and odious beheadings, but the threats from military and cyber sources. He stresses the need to upgrade our missile defenses, protect ourselves from cyber attacks, and eliminate the dangers posed by our porous borders. He calls upon our national leadership to undertake the steps that will protect us all from these threats.
Few doubt that China wants to be a major economic and military power on the world stage. To achieve this ambitious goal, however, the PRC leadership knows that China must first become an advanced information-based society. But does China have what it takes to get there? Are its leaders prepared to make the tough choices required to secure China’s cyber future? Or is there a fundamental mismatch between China’s cyber ambitions and the policies pursued by the CCP until now?
This book offers the first comprehensive analysis of China’s information society. It explores the key practical challenges facing Chinese politicians as they try to marry the development of modern information and communications technology with old ways of governing their people and conducting international relations. Fundamental realities of the information age, not least its globalizing character, are forcing the pace of technological change in China and are not fully compatible with the old PRC ethics of stability, national industrial strength and sovereignty. What happens to China in future decades will depend on the ethical choices its leaders are willing to make today. The stakes are high. But if China’s ruling party does not adapt more aggressively to the defining realities of power and social organization in the information age, the ‘China dream’ looks unlikely to become a reality.
Cyber Blockades is the first book to examine the phenomena of blockade operations in cyberspace, large-scale attacks on infrastructure or systems that aim to prevent an entire state from sending or receiving electronic data. Cyber blockades can take place through digital, physical, and/or electromagnetic means. Blockade operations have historically been considered acts of war, thus their emergence in cyberspace has significant implications for international law and for our understanding of cyber warfare.
The author defines and explains the emerging concept of “cyber blockades” and presents a unique comparison of blockade operations in five different domains—on land, at sea, in the air, in space, and in cyberspace—identifying common elements as well as important distinctions. Alison Lawlor Russell’s framework for defining cyber blockades, understanding how they occur, and considering the motivations of actors who employ them is applied with in-depth analysis of the cyber attacks on Estonia in 2007 and on Georgia during the 2008 Georgia-Russia War.
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The world is increasingly connected. Smartphones are now capable of locking and unlocking our front doors, turning on lights, checking the camera for packages left on the doorstep. We are able to measure our steps, check our baby monitors, record our favorite programs from wherever we have connectivity. We will soon be able to commute to our offices in driverless cars, trains, buses, have our child's blood sugar checked remotely, and divert important energy resources from town to town efficiently. These are incredible potentially life-saving benefits that our society is learning to embrace, but we are also learning that these innovations do not come without a cost. In 2016, the internet encountered a denial of service attack on a scale never before seen. This attack effectively blocked access to popular sites like Netflix and Twitter by weaponizing unsecured network connected devices like cameras and DVRs. How do we make ourselves more secure without sacrificing the benefits of innovation and technological advances? A knee-jerk reaction might be to regulate the Internet of Things, but the United States cannot regulate the world. Standards applied to American-designed, American-manufactured, American-sold devices won't necessarily capture the millions of devices purchased by the billions of people around the world, so the vulnerabilities might remain. Any sustainable and effective solution will require input from all members of the ecosystem of the so-called Internet of Things.