CyberWar

Si Vis Pacem, Para Bellum

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Asymmetric Warfare

Asymmetric WarfareAsymmetric warfare is war between belligerents whose relative military power differs significantly, or whose strategy or tactics differ significantly. “Asymmetric warfare” can describe a conflict in which the resources of two belligerents differ in essence and in the struggle, interact and attempt to exploit each other’s characteristic weaknesses. Such struggles often involve strategies and tactics of unconventional warfare, the “weaker” combatants attempting to use strategy to offset deficiencies in quantity or quality. Such strategies may not necessarily be militarized. This is in contrast to symmetric warfare, where two powers have similar military power and resources and rely on tactics that are similar overall, differing only in details and execution.

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Cyber Terrorism and Information Warfare: Threats and Responses

Cyber Terrorism and Information Warfare: Threats and Responses (Terrorism library series)Cyber terrorism is an emerging new mode of information warfare underscoring the perpetrators’ deliberate exploitation of civilian and military systems’ inherent vulnerabilities, thereby affecting national and global security. This volume includes contributions made by academics, policymakers, and professionals at seminars and conferences co-sponsored by the International Center for Terrorism Studies (Potomac Institute for Policy Studies), and the Terrorism Studies Center (The George Washington University), during the past several years. It also includes statements by key government officials and industry experts at different forums in the United States dealing with both threats and responses.

Included are the statements and assessments of James Adams, Edgar A. Adamson, Madeleine Albright, Mario Balakgie, Elizabeth Banker, Bill Clinton, Fred Cohen, James X. Dempsey, Dianne Feinstein, Kenneth Flamm, Louis J. Freeh, Gideon Frieder, Tom Fuhrman, Charles Giancarlo, Eric Holder, Feisal Keblawi, Jon Kyl, Neal Lane, Joseph Lieberman, Robert T. Marsh, Paul Misener, Roger Molander, Richard Pethia, Janet Reno, Howard Schmidt, Charles Schumer, Robert Shea, David L. Sobel, John Tritak, and Michael A. Vatis.

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Cyber War: The Next Threat to National Security and What to Do about It

Cyber War: The Next Threat to National Security and What to Do about It“The Forgotten Homeland” gathers some of the leading homeland security experts to analyze the United States’ most significant vulnerabilities and to propose strategies to reduce them. The report addresses terrorist as well as non-terrorist threats, and offers ideas for strengthening all aspects of emergency response – including the ability to respond to natural disasters such as Hurricane Katrina.

 

 

 

 

 

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America the Vulnerable: Inside the New Threat Matrix of Digital Espionage, Crime, and Warfare

America the Vulnerable: Inside the New Threat Matrix of Digital Espionage, Crime, and WarfareA former top-level National Security Agency insider goes behind the headlines to explore America’s next great battleground: digital security. An urgent wake-up call that identifies our foes; unveils their methods; and charts the dire consequences for government, business, and individuals.

Shortly after 9/11, Joel Brenner entered the inner sanctum of American espionage, first as the inspector general of the National Security Agency, then as the head of counterintelligence for the director of national intelligence. He saw at close range the battleground on which our adversaries are now attacking us-cyberspace. We are at the mercy of a new generation of spies who operate remotely from China, the Middle East, Russia, even France, among many other places. These operatives have already shown their ability to penetrate our power plants, steal our latest submarine technology, rob our banks, and invade the Pentagon‘s secret communications systems.

Incidents like the WikiLeaks posting of secret U.S. State Department cables hint at the urgency of this problem, but they hardly reveal its extent or its danger. Our government and corporations are a “glass house,” all but transparent to our adversaries. Counterfeit computer chips have found their way into our fighter aircraft; the Chinese stole a new radar system that the navy spent billions to develop; our own soldiers used intentionally corrupted thumb drives to download classified intel from laptops in Iraq. And much more.

Dispatches from the corporate world are just as dire. In 2008, hackers lifted customer files from the Royal Bank of Scotland and used them to withdraw $9 million in half an hour from ATMs in the United States, Britain, and Canada. If that was a traditional heist, it would be counted as one of the largest in history. Worldwide, corporations lose on average $5 million worth of intellectual property apiece annually, and big companies lose many times that.

The structure and culture of the Internet favor spies over governments and corporations, and hackers over privacy, and we’ve done little to alter that balance. Brenner draws on his extraordinary background to show how to right this imbalance and bring to cyberspace the freedom, accountability, and security we expect elsewhere in our lives.

In America the Vulnerable, Brenner offers a chilling and revelatory appraisal of the new faces of war and espionage-virtual battles with dangerous implications for government, business, and all of us.

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Five-Dimensional (Cyber) Warfighting: Can The Army After Next Be Defeated Through Complex Concepts and Technologies?

Five-Dimensional (Cyber) Warfighting: Can The Army After Next Be Defeated Through Complex Concepts and Technologies?With the end of the Cold War, U.S. national security perceptions concerning “Who is the threat?” have been thrown into free fall along with those governmental and military institutions meant to contend with it. Resulting from the spreading chaos and ambiguity in the nation-state system, which stem from the simultaneous processes of fragmentation and regionalization, a new question now needs to be asked—“What is the threat?” Increasingly, national security experts have argued that gray area phenomena,“. . . where control has shifted from legitimate governments to new half political, half-criminal powers,” will become the dominant threat.1 Such entities flourish in the growing failed-state operational environment where a condition of “not war–not crime” prevails and nation-state forces operating within it find themselves facing a severe capability gap.2 These entities disregard Western based “laws of war” and “rules of engagement” and are not concerned about such conventions as “legitimacy” or “public opinion.” Of further significance is the recognition that we are beginning the transition from the modern to the postmodern epoch in Western civilization. Past periods of transition such as this have historically witnessed the two collinear trends of the blurring of crime and war, along with shifts in social classes, economic modes, and motive sources which ultimately result in the fall of one civilization and its replacement by another more advanced one. 3 During the earlier shift from the medieval to the modern epoch, three new forms of social and political organization developed dynastic- (proto nation-) states, city-states, and city-leagues—as competitors to the then dominant feudal structure,4 in tandem with the domination of the battlefield by the non state soldier. Ultimately the early nation-state form and its mercenary armies won out over both these competitors and the preexisting civilization based upon Church, empire, and fief. As the shift to the post-modern epoch becomes more pronounced, we can expect similar competitors to the nation-state form and our modern civilization to emerge along with the accompanying non-state soldier. One such projected warmaking entity, “Black,” and its advanced means of waging war will be discussed in this paper. It is based upon an organizational structure far different than the classical hierarchy to which we are accustomed. Rather, it is nonlinear in function, composed of informational paths analogous to webs and nets, and basic units characterized as nodes and free floating cells.5 Such an organizational structure allows for the greater exploitation of postmechanical energy sources, advanced technologies, and new warfighting concepts which will come to dominate what we will term “war” in the decades to come.

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