With the end of the Cold War, U.S. national security perceptions concerning “Who is the threat?” have been thrown into free fall along with those governmental and military institutions meant to contend with it. Resulting from the spreading chaos and ambiguity in the nation-state system, which stem from the simultaneous processes of fragmentation and regionalization, a new question now needs to be asked—“What is the threat?” Increasingly, national security experts have argued that gray area phenomena,“. . . where control has shifted from legitimate governments to new half political, half-criminal powers,” will become the dominant threat.1 Such entities flourish in the growing failed-state operational environment where a condition of “not war–not crime” prevails and nation-state forces operating within it find themselves facing a severe capability gap.2 These entities disregard Western based “laws of war” and “rules of engagement” and are not concerned about such conventions as “legitimacy” or “public opinion.” Of further significance is the recognition that we are beginning the transition from the modern to the postmodern epoch in Western civilization. Past periods of transition such as this have historically witnessed the two collinear trends of the blurring of crime and war, along with shifts in social classes, economic modes, and motive sources which ultimately result in the fall of one civilization and its replacement by another more advanced one. 3 During the earlier shift from the medieval to the modern epoch, three new forms of social and political organization developed dynastic- (proto nation-) states, city-states, and city-leagues—as competitors to the then dominant feudal structure,4 in tandem with the domination of the battlefield by the non state soldier. Ultimately the early nation-state form and its mercenary armies won out over both these competitors and the preexisting civilization based upon Church, empire, and fief. As the shift to the post-modern epoch becomes more pronounced, we can expect similar competitors to the nation-state form and our modern civilization to emerge along with the accompanying non-state soldier. One such projected warmaking entity, “Black,” and its advanced means of waging war will be discussed in this paper. It is based upon an organizational structure far different than the classical hierarchy to which we are accustomed. Rather, it is nonlinear in function, composed of informational paths analogous to webs and nets, and basic units characterized as nodes and free floating cells.5 Such an organizational structure allows for the greater exploitation of postmechanical energy sources, advanced technologies, and new warfighting concepts which will come to dominate what we will term “war” in the decades to come.
The wonders and advantages of modern age electronics and the World Wide Web have also, unfortunately, ushered in a new age of terrorism. The growing connectivity among secure and insecure networks has created new opportunities for unauthorized intrusions into sensitive or proprietary computer systems. Some of these vulnerabilities are waiting to be exploited, while numerous others already have. Everyday that a vulnerability or threat goes unchecked greatly increases an attack and the damage it can cause. Who knows what the prospects for a cascade of failures across US infrastructures could lead to. What type of group or individual would exploit this vulnerability, and why would they do it? “Inside the Mind of a Criminal Hacker” sets the stage and cast of characters for examples and scenarios such as this, providing the security specialist a window into the enemy's mind – necessary in order to develop a well configured defense. Written by leading security and counter-terrorism experts, whose experience include first-hand exposure in working with government branches & agencies (such as the FBI, US Army, Department of Homeland Security), this book sets a standard for the fight against the cyber-terrorist. Proving, that at the heart of the very best defense is knowing and understanding your enemy.
* This book will demonstrate the motives and motivations of criminal hackers through profiling attackers at post attack and forensic levels.
* This book is essential to those who need to truly “know thy enemy” in order to prepare the best defense.
* . The breadth of material in “Inside the Criminal Mind” will surprise every security specialist and cyber-terrorist buff of how much they do and (more importantly) don't know about the types of adversaries they stand to face.
How do the weak defeat the strong? Ivan Arreguín-Toft argues that, although many factors affect asymmetric conflict outcomes (for example, the relative power of the actors, their weapons technology, and outside support), the interaction of each actor's strategy is the best explanation. Supporting his argument with combined statistical and comparative case study analysis, Arreguín-Toft's strategic interaction theory has implications not only for international relations theorists, but for policy makers grappling with interstate and civil wars, as well as terrorism.
Cyber terrorism is an emerging new mode of information warfare underscoring the perpetrators' deliberate exploitation of civilian and military systems' inherent vulnerabilities, thereby affecting national and global security. This volume includes contributions made by academics, policymakers, and professionals at seminars and conferences co-sponsored by the International Center for Terrorism Studies (Potomac Institute for Policy Studies), and the Terrorism Studies Center (The George Washington University), during the past several years. It also includes statements by key government officials and industry experts at different forums in the United States dealing with both threats and responses.
“The Forgotten Homeland” gathers some of the leading homeland security experts to analyze the United States' most significant vulnerabilities and to propose strategies to reduce them. The report addresses terrorist as well as non-terrorist threats, and offers ideas for strengthening all aspects of emergency response – including the ability to respond to natural disasters such as Hurricane Katrina.