In today’s fast-paced world of overseas contingency and domestic operations, commanders rely on the advice of JAG Corps personnel to make critical decisions, sometimes involving life and death. Demand for this advice is high and will likely increase. The complexity of the operational environment is also growing. We can be sure that technological advances on the 21st Century battlefield will take us into uncharted legal territory, where we will be expected to analyze the complexities and provide accurate advice faster than ever before. Our ability to do so will have a direct impact on America’s capacity to effectively project power across the spectrum of conflict. Commanders count on legal teams knowledgeable in subjects ranging from weapon selection and target engagement to nation building and counterinsurgency activities. That’s why the second edition of the Air Force Operations & the Law: a Guide for Air & Space Forces is so important.
Network Warfare Squadrons of the United States Air Force, 91st Network Warfare Squadron, 33d Network Warfare Squadron, 315th Network Warfare Squadron, 426th Network Warfare Squadron, 68th Network Warfare Squadron. Excerpt: The 91st Network Warfare Squadron is an active United States Air Force unit, currently assigned to the 67th Network Warfare Wing at Kelly Annex, part of Lackland Air Force Base, Texas. The DUI is a white Knight on horseback chasing a red Devil within a Blue circle, formerly a diamond. Redesignated: 91st Squadron on 14 March 1921Redesignated: 91st Observation Squadron on 25 January 1923Redesignated: 91st Observation Squadron (Medium) on 13 January 1942Redesignated: 91st Observation Squadron on 4 July 1942Redesignated: 91st Reconnaissance Squadron (Bomber) on 2 April 1943Redesignated: 91st Tactical Reconnaissance Squadron on ii August 1943Redesignated: 91st Photographic Mapping Squadron on 9 October 1943Redesignated: 91st Photo¬graphic Charting Squadron on 17 October 1944Redesignated: 91st Reconnaissance Squadron (Long Range, Photographic) on 15 June 1945Redesignated: 91st Strategic Reconnaissance Squadron (Photographic) on 25 March 1949Redesignated: 91st Strategic Reconnaissance Squadron (Medium, Photographic) on 6 July 1950Redesignated: 91st Strategic Reconnaissance Squadron (Fighter) on 20 December 1954Inactivated on 1 July 1957 Redesignated: 91st Intelligence Squadron on 1 October 1993Inactivated on 5 May 2005 Attached to Ninth Corps Area, 1 October 1930 Flight attached to Joint Brazil-US Military Commission to 30 June 1947 Attached to Antilles Air Division Attached to 91st Strategic Reconnaissance Wing Attached to Far East Air Forces Attached to 407th Strategic Fighter Wing to 15 July 1955
Dynamic Radar Map from Flightradar24.com
“It is late fall 2025; Al Qaeda sleeper cells target the disruption of airline traffic into multiple East coast airports during the busy travel season from Thanksgiving through Christmas.
ADS-B IN/OUT has been fully implemented by the FAA; all commercial airlines have invested heavily to comply with the mandate. Oil prices are at an all time high and flights are carrying minimal fuel loads to save money and offset the cost of avionics.
The goal: force multiple airplanes to divert; pilots, FAA controllers and passengers to lose faith in the system; and possibly cause enough chaos to the NAS system that a few lives are lost.
The plan: exploit the U.S. dependency on ADS-B IN/OUT and GPS for arrivals into busy airports, especially during low visibility conditions.
The teams: five two man teams have been put into play for the mission. They are provided with all the commercially available technology they will need, along with a few modified laptop computers, antennas and transmitters.
The targets: Regan National, Dulles, La Guardia, JFK and Philadelphia International airports. The terrorists have been tasked to park minivans with computers containing modified software that are coupled to ADS-B OUT transmitters. The software is designed to be remotely activated and controlled over an Internet connection. Each computer is programmed specifically for the targeted airport, and transmits 978MHz and 1090MHz signals out a boosted transmitter.
As a result, airlines on final approach will receive false targets on their displays. The terrorists ghost target injects also propagate to the FAA controller’s screens. The terrorists intended these spoofed targets, programmed at conflicting arrival and departure corridors as well as in runway incursion situations, to cause multiple airports to become temporarily unusable. The resulting domino effect causes aircraft diversions and delays that will lead to chaos.”
- USAF Cyberspace Operations Doctrine Document – AFDD 3-12 (tobem.com)
- National Defense Strategy – United States of America (tobem.com)
- Air traffic system vulnerable to cyber attack (newscientist.com)
- Air Traffic Control: Insecurity and ADS-B (defcon.org)
- DEFCON 17: Air Traffic Control: Insecurity and ADS-B (youtube.com)
- DEFCON 18: Air Traffic Control Insecurity 2.0 (youtube.com)
- DEFCON 20: Hacker + Airplanes = No Good Can Come Of This (youtube.com)
- London Mil MODE-s LOGS (Military Aircrafts over London Updated every 2 minutes) (live-mode-s.info)
AFDD 3-12 is the US Air Force’s foundational doctrine publication for Air Force operations in, through, and from the cyberspace domain. It defines Cyberspace Superiority and speaks to US Air Force support of maintaining Cyberspace Superiority, a common military function.
“Today, we live in a globally-networked society that is increasingly dependent upon cyberspace access and security. Our ability to gain and maintain superiority in cyberspace has become essential to our ability to deliver global reach, power, and vigilance. As an integral member of the joint warfighting team, the Air Force is committed to growing, sustaining, and presenting highly skilled and well-equipped forces to joint force commanders who can deliver decisive effects in, from, and through cyberspace, while assuring our mission against an asymmetric cyber threat.
Freedom of action in the cyberspace domain enables our command, control, communication, computers, intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance capabilities. Our modern defenses, industrial base, and global commerce, as well as that of our nation’s enemies, depend on free use of land, sea, air, space, and cyberspace. Leverage in cyberspace affords influence and control across all other domains. This leverage increases our forces’ access, speed, reach, stealth, and precision.
Controlling the portions of cyberspace integral to our mission is a fundamental prerequisite to effective operations across the range of military operations. While we appreciate the power that cyber-enabled capabilities add, we also maintain a healthy respect for the asymmetric power that cyberspace affords our adversaries. We must maintain a constant commitment to educate, train, and equip our Airman to prevail in the contested domain of cyberspace.
In the past decade, technological advances have provided the means to generate decisive and magnified effects in domains that traditionally could only be achieved via kinetic means. We must continually adapt our operating concepts to leverage emerging cyberspace capabilities to ensure the Air Force maintains the decisive advantage over our adversaries.”
MAURICE H. FORSYTH
Major General, USAF
Commander, LeMay Center for Doctrine
Development and Education
This is a AIR FORCE INST OF TECH WRIGHT-PATTERSONAFB OH report procured by the Pentagon and made available for public release. It has been reproduced in the best form available to the Pentagon. It is not spiral-bound, but rather assembled with Velobinding in a soft, white linen cover. The Storming Media report number is A017014. The abstract provided by the Pentagon follows: Information Warfare involves the attack and defense of information and information systems, both in time of armed conflict and in operations short of war. While information technology provides the promise of a new class of less lethal military instruments, it also presents vulnerabilities occasioned by widespread dependence on an increasingly complex and interconnected global information infrastructure. These vulnerabilities, when exploited by those who would target civilians in order to inspire widespread fear in hopes of accomplishing a political agenda, can be understood as cyberterrorism. As information warfare techniques evolve, those employing them should look to several relevant sources for normative guidance. Relevant, internationally shared values can be found in international custom, the U.N. Charter, treaties dealing with the subject of “cybercrime,” those governing the communication media likely to be utilized by information warriors, UNGA Resolutions and those treaties and customary norms that make up the Law of Armed Conflict.