Information Warfare, Cyber-Terrorism and Community Values

Information Warfare, Cyber-Terrorism and Community ValuesThis is a AIR FORCE INST OF TECH WRIGHT-PATTERSONAFB OH report procured by the Pentagon and made available for public release. It has been reproduced in the best form available to the Pentagon. It is not spiral-bound, but rather assembled with Velobinding in a soft, white linen cover. The Storming Media report number is A017014. The abstract provided by the Pentagon follows: Information Warfare involves the attack and defense of information and information systems, both in time of armed conflict and in operations short of war. While information technology provides the promise of a new class of less lethal military instruments, it also presents vulnerabilities occasioned by widespread dependence on an increasingly complex and interconnected global information infrastructure. These vulnerabilities, when exploited by those who would target civilians in order to inspire widespread fear in hopes of accomplishing a political agenda, can be understood as cyberterrorism. As information warfare techniques evolve, those employing them should look to several relevant sources for normative guidance. Relevant, internationally shared values can be found in international custom, the U.N. Charter, treaties dealing with the subject of “cybercrime,” those governing the communication media likely to be utilized by information warriors, UNGA Resolutions and those treaties and customary norms that make up the Law of Armed Conflict.

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USAF Cyberspace Operations Doctrine Document – AFDD 3-12

USAF Cyberspace Operations Doctrine Document - AFDD 3-12AFDD 3-12 is the US Air Force’s foundational doctrine publication for Air Force operations in, through, and from the cyberspace domain. It defines Cyberspace Superiority and speaks to US Air Force support of maintaining Cyberspace Superiority, a common military function.

“Today, we live in a globally-networked society that is increasingly dependent upon cyberspace access and security. Our ability to gain and maintain superiority in cyberspace has become essential to our ability to deliver global reach, power, and vigilance. As an integral member of the joint warfighting team, the Air Force is committed to growing, sustaining, and presenting highly skilled and well-equipped forces to joint force commanders who can deliver decisive effects in, from, and through cyberspace, while assuring our mission against an asymmetric cyber threat.

Freedom of action in the cyberspace domain enables our command, control, communication, computers, intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance capabilities. Our modern defenses, industrial base, and global commerce, as well as that of our nation’s enemies, depend on free use of land, sea, air, space, and cyberspace. Leverage in cyberspace affords influence and control across all other domains. This leverage increases our forces’ access, speed, reach, stealth, and precision.

Controlling the portions of cyberspace integral to our mission is a fundamental prerequisite to effective operations across the range of military operations. While we appreciate the power that cyber-enabled capabilities add, we also maintain a healthy respect for the asymmetric power that cyberspace affords our adversaries. We must maintain a constant commitment to educate, train, and equip our Airman to prevail in the contested domain of cyberspace.

In the past decade, technological advances have provided the means to generate decisive and magnified effects in domains that traditionally could only be achieved via kinetic means. We must continually adapt our operating concepts to leverage emerging cyberspace capabilities to ensure the Air Force maintains the decisive advantage over our adversaries.”

MAURICE H. FORSYTH
Major General, USAF
Commander, LeMay Center for Doctrine
Development and Education

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Air Cyber Power and ADS-B Vulnerabilities

Dynamic Radar Map from Flightradar24.com

Exploring Potential ADS-B Vulnerabilities in The FAA NEXTGEN Air Transportation System
The Fog of a “Cyber” War

“It is late fall 2025; Al Qaeda sleeper cells target the disruption of airline traffic into multiple East coast airports during the busy travel season from Thanksgiving through Christmas.
ADS-B IN/OUT has been fully implemented by the FAA; all commercial airlines have invested heavily to comply with the mandate. Oil prices are at an all time high and flights are carrying minimal fuel loads to save money and offset the cost of avionics.

The goal: force multiple airplanes to divert; pilots, FAA controllers and passengers to lose faith in the system; and possibly cause enough chaos to the NAS system that a few lives are lost.

The plan: exploit the U.S. dependency on ADS-B IN/OUT and GPS for arrivals into busy airports, especially during low visibility conditions.

The teams: five two man teams have been put into play for the mission. They are provided with all the commercially available technology they will need, along with a few modified laptop computers, antennas and transmitters.

The targets: Regan National, Dulles, La Guardia, JFK and Philadelphia International airports. The terrorists have been tasked to park minivans with computers containing modified software that are coupled to ADS-B OUT transmitters. The software is designed to be remotely activated and controlled over an Internet connection. Each computer is programmed specifically for the targeted airport, and transmits 978MHz and 1090MHz signals out a boosted transmitter.

As a result, airlines on final approach will receive false targets on their displays. The terrorists ghost target injects also propagate to the FAA controller’s screens. The terrorists intended these spoofed targets, programmed at conflicting arrival and departure corridors as well as in runway incursion situations, to cause multiple airports to become temporarily unusable. The resulting domino effect causes aircraft diversions and delays that will lead to chaos.”

DONALD L. McCALLIE
Major, USAF
Degree of Master of Cyber Warfare
Air Force Institute of Technology
Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, USA

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Network Warfare Squadrons of the United States Air Force

Network Warfare Squadrons of the United States Air Force, 91st Network Warfare SquadronNetwork Warfare Squadrons of the United States Air Force, 91st Network Warfare Squadron, 33d Network Warfare Squadron, 315th Network Warfare Squadron, 426th Network Warfare Squadron, 68th Network Warfare Squadron. Excerpt: The 91st Network Warfare Squadron is an active United States Air Force unit, currently assigned to the 67th Network Warfare Wing at Kelly Annex, part of Lackland Air Force Base, Texas. The DUI is a white Knight on horseback chasing a red Devil within a Blue circle, formerly a diamond. Redesignated: 91st Squadron on 14 March 1921Redesignated: 91st Observation Squadron on 25 January 1923Redesignated: 91st Observation Squadron (Medium) on 13 January 1942Redesignated: 91st Observation Squadron on 4 July 1942Redesignated: 91st Reconnaissance Squadron (Bomber) on 2 April 1943Redesignated: 91st Tactical Reconnaissance Squadron on ii August 1943Redesignated: 91st Photographic Mapping Squadron on 9 October 1943Redesignated: 91st Photo¬graphic Charting Squadron on 17 October 1944Redesignated: 91st Reconnaissance Squadron (Long Range, Photographic) on 15 June 1945Redesignated: 91st Strategic Reconnaissance Squadron (Photographic) on 25 March 1949Redesignated: 91st Strategic Reconnaissance Squadron (Medium, Photographic) on 6 July 1950Redesignated: 91st Strategic Reconnaissance Squadron (Fighter) on 20 December 1954Inactivated on 1 July 1957 Redesignated: 91st Intelligence Squadron on 1 October 1993Inactivated on 5 May 2005 Attached to Ninth Corps Area, 1 October 1930 Flight attached to Joint Brazil-US Military Commission to 30 June 1947 Attached to Antilles Air Division Attached to 91st Strategic Reconnaissance Wing Attached to Far East Air Forces Attached to 407th Strategic Fighter Wing to 15 July 1955

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Do the Principles of War Apply to Cyber War?

Amazon Price: $16.99 $16.99 (as of June 28, 2017 10:53 – Details). Product prices and availability are accurate as of the date/time indicated and are subject to change. Any price and availability information displayed on the Amazon site at the time of purchase will apply to the purchase of this product.

The purpose of this monograph is to examine whether the Principles of War, as defined within the U.S. military’s Joint Publication 3-0, Joint Operations, can be applied to cyber war. Since 2005, the U.S. military recognized cyber conflict as a new domain for conducting military operations. Consequently, in order to ensure future success on the battlefield, commanders need to understand cyberspace operations and how these operations fit within the Principles of War. The methodology of this paper is to first examine, and subsequently show the history of the Principles of War in order to provide a context from which military personnel can then categorize cyberspace within the historic model. Such an examination is relevant because not only is U.S. cyber policy and strategy currently being developed, but the United States is also standing up a United States Cyber Command for the first time in history. Having discussed the Principles of War and woven them across an understanding of cyber operations, one can then see that the current Principles of War do in fact apply to cyber war. There is no need to create new Principles of War that apply exclusively to the cyber domain.