Air Cyber Power and ADS-B Vulnerabilities

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Exploring Potential ADS-B Vulnerabilities in The FAA NEXTGEN Air Transportation System
The Fog of a “Cyber” War

“It is late fall 2025; Al Qaeda sleeper cells target the disruption of airline traffic into multiple East coast airports during the busy travel season from Thanksgiving through Christmas.
ADS-B IN/OUT has been fully implemented by the FAA; all commercial airlines have invested heavily to comply with the mandate. Oil prices are at an all time high and flights are carrying minimal fuel loads to save money and offset the cost of avionics.

The goal: force multiple airplanes to divert; pilots, FAA controllers and passengers to lose faith in the system; and possibly cause enough chaos to the NAS system that a few lives are lost.

The plan: exploit the U.S. dependency on ADS-B IN/OUT and GPS for arrivals into busy airports, especially during low visibility conditions.

The teams: five two man teams have been put into play for the mission. They are provided with all the commercially available technology they will need, along with a few modified laptop computers, antennas and transmitters.

The targets: Regan National, Dulles, La Guardia, JFK and Philadelphia International airports. The terrorists have been tasked to park minivans with computers containing modified software that are coupled to ADS-B OUT transmitters. The software is designed to be remotely activated and controlled over an Internet connection. Each computer is programmed specifically for the targeted airport, and transmits 978MHz and 1090MHz signals out a boosted transmitter.

As a result, airlines on final approach will receive false targets on their displays. The terrorists ghost target injects also propagate to the FAA controller’s screens. The terrorists intended these spoofed targets, programmed at conflicting arrival and departure corridors as well as in runway incursion situations, to cause multiple airports to become temporarily unusable. The resulting domino effect causes aircraft diversions and delays that will lead to chaos.”

DONALD L. McCALLIE
Major, USAF
Degree of Master of Cyber Warfare
Air Force Institute of Technology
Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, USA

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Network-Centric Warfare: How Navies Learned to Fight Smarter Through Three World Wars

Network-Centric Warfare: How Navies Learned to Fight Smarter Through Three World WarsOver the past decade, the United States has moved toward a new style of warfare, called network centric, that uses an almost real-time, shared picture of a military situation as the basis for operations. To explain what network-centric warfare is and how it works, defense analyst Norman Friedman uses specific historical examples of actual combat rather than the abstractions common to other books on the subject. He argues that navies invented this style of warfare and that twentieth-century wars, culminating in the Cold War, show how networked warfare worked and did not work and illustrate what net-on-net warfare means. The book builds on Friedman s personal experience in an early application of network-centric warfare that developed the method of targeting the Tomahawk anti-ship missile.To give readers a realistic feeling for what the new style of warfare offers and what is needed to make it work, the book concentrates on the tactical picture, not the communications network itself. Friedman s focus on what the warriors really want and need makes it possible to evaluate the various contributions to a network-centric system. Without such a focus, Friedman notes, the needs of networked warfare reduce simply to the desire for more and more information, delivered at greater and greater speeds. The information he provides is valuable to all the services, and students of history will appreciate the light it sheds on new ways of understanding old conflicts.

Price: $32.95

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Network-Centric Naval Forces: A Transition Strategy for Enhancing Operational Capabilities

Network-Centric Naval Forces: A Transition Strategy for Enhancing Operational CapabilitiesOwing to the expansion of network-centric operating concepts across the Department of Defense (DOD) and the growing threat to information and cybersecurity from lone actors, groups of like-minded actors, nation-states, and malicious insiders, information assurance is an area of significant and growing importance and concern. Because of the forward positioning of both the Navy's afloat and the Marine Corps expeditionary forces, IA issues for naval forces are exacerbated, and are tightly linked to operational success. Broad-based IA success is viewed by the NRC's Committee on Information Assurance for Network-Centric Naval Forces as providing a central underpinning to the DOD's network-centric operational concept and the Department of the Navy's (DON's) FORCEnet operational vision. Accordingly, this report provides a view and analysis of information assurance in the context of naval ‘mission assurance'.

Price: $130.25

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Wiki at War: Conflict in a Socially Networked World

Wiki at War: Conflict in a Socially Networked WorldIn 2011, amid the popular uprising against Egyptian president Hosni Mubarak, the government sought in vain to shut down the Internet-based social networks of its people.

WikiLeaks editor-in-chief Julian Assange has been branded “public enemy number one” by some in the United States for posting material on the World Wide Web that concerns airstrikes in Iraq, US diplomatic communications, and other sensitive matters.
In Wiki at War, James Jay Carafano explains why these and other Internet-born initiatives matter and how they are likely to affect the future face of war, diplomacy, and domestic politics.
“The war for winning dominance over social networks and using that dominance to advantage is already underway,” Carafano writes in this extremely timely analysis of the techno-future of information and the impact of social networking via the Internet. Drawing on his extensive knowledge of history and defense strategy, Carafano creates a cogent analysis of what is truly new about the “new media,” and what is simply a recasting of human warfare in contemporary forms.
Wiki at War is written in a lively, accessible style that will make this technological development comprehensible and engaging for general readers without sacrificing the book’s usefulness to specialists. Outlining the conditions under which a difference in degree becomes a difference in kind, detailing how ancient wisdom can still apply to national security decisions, and examining the conditions under which new expertise is required to wage effective diplomacy or successful military strategy, Carafano casts in stark relief the issues that face political, military, and social leaders in trying to manage and control information, in both the international and domestic arenas. Wiki at War affords stimulating thought about and definitive discussion of this vital emerging topic.

Price: $24.95

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Network Warfare Squadrons of the United States Air Force

Network Warfare Squadrons of the United States Air Force, 91st Network Warfare SquadronNetwork Warfare Squadrons of the United States Air Force, 91st Network Warfare Squadron, 33d Network Warfare Squadron, 315th Network Warfare Squadron, 426th Network Warfare Squadron, 68th Network Warfare Squadron. Excerpt: The 91st Network Warfare Squadron is an active United States Air Force unit, currently assigned to the 67th Network Warfare Wing at Kelly Annex, part of Lackland Air Force Base, Texas. The DUI is a white Knight on horseback chasing a red Devil within a Blue circle, formerly a diamond. Redesignated: 91st Squadron on 14 March 1921Redesignated: 91st Observation Squadron on 25 January 1923Redesignated: 91st Observation Squadron (Medium) on 13 January 1942Redesignated: 91st Observation Squadron on 4 July 1942Redesignated: 91st Reconnaissance Squadron (Bomber) on 2 April 1943Redesignated: 91st Tactical Reconnaissance Squadron on ii August 1943Redesignated: 91st Photographic Mapping Squadron on 9 October 1943Redesignated: 91st Photo¬graphic Charting Squadron on 17 October 1944Redesignated: 91st Reconnaissance Squadron (Long Range, Photographic) on 15 June 1945Redesignated: 91st Strategic Reconnaissance Squadron (Photographic) on 25 March 1949Redesignated: 91st Strategic Reconnaissance Squadron (Medium, Photographic) on 6 July 1950Redesignated: 91st Strategic Reconnaissance Squadron (Fighter) on 20 December 1954Inactivated on 1 July 1957 Redesignated: 91st Intelligence Squadron on 1 October 1993Inactivated on 5 May 2005 Attached to Ninth Corps Area, 1 October 1930 Flight attached to Joint Brazil-US Military Commission to 30 June 1947 Attached to Antilles Air Division Attached to 91st Strategic Reconnaissance Wing Attached to Far East Air Forces Attached to 407th Strategic Fighter Wing to 15 July 1955

Price: $14.14

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