The United States faces evolving cybersecurity threats from nation-states such as China, Russia, North Korea, and Iran, as well as cyber threats from criminal organizations and terrorist groups such as ISIS. These actors continue to develop and build more sophisticated cyber capabilities. These hackers now pose an even greater threat to the U.S. homeland and critical infrastructure. Cybersecurity more than ever is National security. In 2015, the U.S. was the victim of one of the most significant cyber attacks in its history. The breach at the Office of Personnel Management exposed the personal and security clearance information of 21.5 million current and former Government employees. In 2014, North Korea conducted a cyber attack on Sony Pictures that not only destroyed computers, but also was intended to stifle free speech and threaten American ideals. The Obama administration's lack of proportional responses to these cyber attacks has signaled to the world that there are no real consequences for such actions. Without a comprehensive National cybersecurity strategy that establishes deterrence, the future could bring an increasing number of adversaries that are willing to conduct cyber attacks against the United States.
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