Internet influye en nuestras vidas y en nuestras costumbres, en la forma de buscar información, de entretenernos, de comunicarnos y por supuesto ha hecho que aparezcan nuevas formas de comprar y vender bienes y servicios de todo tipo. Estos cambios comportan grandes beneficios, no sólo para los usuarios sino también para las empresas que han encontrado grandes oportunidades en los desarrollos de las comunicaciones. Estas tecnologías están al alcance tanto de las grandes empresas como de las pequeñas. Cualquiera de estos adelantos puede estar al alcance de otras empresas o clientes potenciales dispersos alrededor del mundo. De este modo, se han desarrollado un gran número de operaciones comerciales. Pero así como crecen los beneficios, esta nueva realidad presenta un desafío para las autoridades fiscales, puesto que es difícil crear un sistema legal-impositivo adecuado a los nuevos tipo de comercio. El comercio electrónico va creciendo cada día, puesto que es una forma cómoda y rápida de adquirir lo que necesitamos sin movernos de casa, aunque crece poco a poco debido a la inseguridad social en este método.
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This unique book explains the basic issues of classical and modern cryptography, and provides a self contained essential mathematical background in number theory, abstract algebra, and probability—with surveys of relevant parts of complexity theory and other things. A user-friendly, down-to-earth tone presents concretely motivated introductions to these topics. More detailed chapter topics include simple ciphers; applying ideas from probability; substitutions, transpositions, permutations; modern symmetric ciphers; the integers; prime numbers; powers and roots modulo primes; powers and roots for composite moduli; weakly multiplicative functions; quadratic symbols, quadratic reciprocity; pseudoprimes; groups; sketches of protocols; rings, fields, polynomials; cyclotomic polynomials, primitive roots; pseudo-random number generators; proofs concerning pseudoprimality; factorization attacks finite fields; and elliptic curves. For personnel in computer security, system administration, and information systems.
In Ruling the Root, Milton Mueller uses the theoretical framework of institutional
economics to analyze the global policy and governance problems created by the assignment of Internet
domain names and addresses. "The root" is the top of the domain name hierarchy and the Internet
address space. It is the only point of centralized control in what is otherwise a distributed and
voluntaristic network of networks. Both domain names and IP numbers are valuable resources, and
their assignment on a coordinated basis is essential to the technical operation of the Internet.
Mueller explains how control of the root is being leveraged to control the Internet itself in such
key areas as trademark and copyright protection, surveillance of users, content regulation, and
regulation of the domain name supply industry.Control of the root originally resided in an
informally organized technical elite comprised mostly of American computer scientists. As the
Internet became commercialized and domain name registration became a profitable business, a six-year
struggle over property rights and the control of the root broke out among Internet technologists,
business and intellectual property interests, international organizations, national governments, and
advocates of individual rights. By the late 1990s, it was apparent that only a new international
institution could resolve conflicts among the factions in the domain name wars. Mueller recounts the
fascinating process that led to the formation of a new international regime around ICANN, the
Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers. In the process, he shows how the vaunted
freedom and openness of the Internet is being diminished by the institutionalization of the
With an emphasis on peer–produced content and collaboration, Wikipedia exemplifies a departure from traditional management and organizational models. This iconic "project" has been variously characterized as a hive mind and an information revolution, attracting millions of new users even as it has been denigrated as anarchic and plagued by misinformation. Have Wikipedia's structure and inner workings promoted its astonishing growth and enduring public relevance?
In Common Knowledge?, Dariusz Jemielniak draws on his academic expertise and years of active participation within the Wikipedia community to take readers inside the site, illuminating how it functions and deconstructing its distinctive organization. Against a backdrop of misconceptions about its governance, authenticity, and accessibility, Jemielniak delivers the first ethnography of Wikipedia, revealing that it is not entirely at the mercy of the public: instead, it balances open access and power with a unique bureaucracy that takes a page from traditional organizational forms. Along the way, Jemielniak incorporates fascinating cases that highlight the tug of war among the participants as they forge ahead in this pioneering environment.