China‘s INEW doctrine combining network attack with electronic warfare supports the use of cyber warfare in future conflict. The IW militia unit organization provides each Chinese military region commander with unique network attack, exploitation, and defense capabilities. IW unit training focuses on improving network attack skills during military exercises. The integration of the IW militia units with commercial technology companies provides infrastructure and technical support enabling the units to conduct operations. The IW units gather intelligence on an adversary‘s networks identifying critical nodes and security weaknesses. Armed with this intelligence, these units are capable of conducting network attack to disrupt or destroy the identified critical nodes of an enemy‘s C4ISR assets allowing China to use military force in a local war. In an effort to regain its former status, China pursues the strategic goal of reunification of its claimed sovereign territories and lands using economic influence as the primary means but will resort to military force if necessary. Recent cyber activities attributed to China suggest that network exploitation is currently underway and providing military, political, and economic information to the CCP. Domestically and internationally, China views Taiwan and the United States respectively as the major threats to the CCP.
Cyberspace attacks continue in the United States with many of these incidents crossing international borders. The global nature of cyberspace makes it difficult to determine if a breach into a computer system is an act of cyberterrorism, cyber crime, or cyber warfare. An attack to steal credit card information may be all three simultaneous. The Department of Defense is ready to protect the nation against all enemies in the air, on the land, or on the sea. These domains are well protected with military forces postured to respond. Our nation’s economy is under constant attack through the cyberspace domain. Attacks through electronic means happen at the speed of light and require a quick response to contain. Proactive approaches defend our borders, but not our economy. Instead, the United States has a passive defense relying on the goodwill of commercial enterprises and the investigative approaches of law enforcement agencies. Through the Untied States Cyber Command, the Department of Defense has capability that can be used to defend America. This work looks at the roles and responsibilities of the Department of Defense as it relates to Homeland Defense and the protection of credit card information transitioning across the Internet.